Thursday, January 16, 2020

Moral Challenges Essay

Morality is a highly contested topic in every day life. It can be defined as a thought process of making decisions based on one’s beliefs or desires shaped by one’s culture. A right or wrong moral decision can therefore be said to be a product of culture and law stipulated in a constitution and applied in a certain jurisdiction. In everyday life, we are faced with challenges and situations that require our judgment and actions (Kermerling, 2002). In this paper, I will explore two moral situations in which I believe I made the right and wrong decisions respectively, the parties that were involved, the reasons behind my actions and the consequences that followed my decisions and actions. Lastly, I will identify what actions I will take if faced with the same situation the next time to avoid making wrong decisions. Moral Challenges A Right Moral Decision The decision I made to take responsible leadership role and mitigate the planned students’ strike was one of the most acceptable action I ever made in my life. I was actively involved in a peace mission to contain the strike that was organized by drunken and unruly students in the university. The judgment process was affected after the students took alcohol and caused disorder in the institution (Cima, Tonnaer & Hauser, 2009). The peace mission involved the director of the faculty, a lecturer, the student leaders and a few students. The students had issues with a lecturer who had failed to show up in three lectures. While it was right for the students to complain over the absence of the lecturer, it was expected for them to follow the right procedure in addressing the problem. The organizers of the strike came while drunk and tried to convince and force the rest of the students to join them in a demonstration to the administration offices. Some students got tempted and joined the unruly students claiming that the administration has failed to act appropriately to their claims. As the chair person of the students union, I took an initiative and addressed the students and informed them that contrary to the claims of some of them, the issue was being addressed and that the lecturer in question had been summoned and appropriate solution would be arrived at soon. I spoke with wisdom, â€Å"Comrades, we are gathered here to inquire about our rights to have normal and uninterrupted studies. Besides, any missed lecture means waste of time and resources. However, the lecturer in question has been summoned and the decision will be communicated to us in appropriate time. Furthermore, I have called the director of the faculty and informed me that he will be here with us in the next one hour. Therefore, I request all of us to have patience since the issue is being handled wisely by the administration. Thank you! † My speech caused a mixed reaction with minority of them accusing me and the rest of the leaders of being sympathizers and colluding with the administration and not giving students’ interests any priority. They begun singing and chanting and demanded at the top of their voices that, â€Å"we demand that you and all our leaders join us in the fight for our rights†¦ we want to show the lecturer a lesson. † Majority of the students were convinced in my speech and they helped in calming the situation. Later, the faculty director arrived and he addressed us all giving the way forward to the satisfaction of the majority. The main architects of the strike were identified and suspended and others expelled and the university once again realized the tranquility which was important in the learning process. This benefited the administration as it served as a wake up call and they moved with speed to address majority of issues by factoring in student needs. The rest of the students benefitted by continuing with normal learning and all the issues raised were addressed with the lecturer getting a warning A Wrong Moral Situation An incident I remember to have taken a wrong decision involved taking side with my brother to indict our house help. Due to my brother’s recklessness, he had left the car keys in his girlfriend’s house. The girlfriend quietly sneaked in our compound and took off with the car whose keys were forgotten in her house. Unfortunately, the girlfriend was a drug dealer and so used the car to transport hard drugs to her customers. She got spotted by the police although she managed to escape abandoning the car and drugs. After learning that the car was in police station, my father rushed home to interrogate us all before proceeding to the police station to record a statement. On sharing with my brother we called his girlfriend and struck a deal to be silent on the whole issue and put the whole blame on the house help. Although I knew the whole truth that my brother had forgotten the keys at his girlfriend’s house, I argued in defense of my brother. I maintained that it was the house help’s responsibility to take care of everything. My brother after gaining confidence and my support, he made his remark in a family meeting, â€Å"I fail to understand how the car came to be used in drug trafficking. It is evident that the house help has been colluding with drug traffickers. The house help should get sacked with immediate effect. † He talked harshly as he left the sitting room, â€Å"He should provide a succinct explanation in this meeting or else he will do it better at the police. † I felt a push inside my heart that what I was doing was wrong but I convinced myself that I had the obligation of defending my brother no matter what and so I cared less of the consequences to the other party. This is the case that happens with psychopaths (Cima, Tonnaer & Hauser, 2009). The houses help felt much threatened and could not raise point to defend himself even when it meant he was not guilty. This led to his sacking letting my brother to go scot-free. My brother’s girlfriend and her gang made their best not to be caught in the scandal as they feared the consequences like imprisonment and fines. But the house help suffered unfairly as he lost his job failing to get paid and getting disturbed with even not knowing what could follow. I regretted of making such decision and I made a promise to myself that in case I got faced with the same problem, I would first remind my brother that it should be his responsibility to be accountable for every action he takes and that the house help has aright to expression and fair treatment. This will serve as an example and a wake up call for him to act appropriately in future. The issue of defending my brother and his girlfriend was not moral as it led to the firing of the house help. I will in future keep morals and make sensible decisions which respect all people regardless to class (Kermerling, 2002). In general, it is important that we make decisions based on our beliefs and moral codes on what is right and wrong. This will help shape our society and make everyone act to appropriately. Right moral decisions have significant benefit in the society. With right moral judgments, justice will be maintained and the offenders will be punished. Wrong moral decisions deprive the society of peace and justice. The poor and the minor groups in our society will always be intimidated as they are powerless. Reference: Cima, M. , Tonnaer, F. , & Hauser, M. D (2009). Psychopaths know right from wrong but don’t care. Human Molecular Genetics’ Special Review Issue: Molecular Genetics Advances in Neurological Disease. 3(1): 329-45. Kemerling, G (2002). Kant: The moral order. Retrieved June 06 2010 from: http://www. philosophypages. com/hy/5i. htm

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Essay on Should Homelessness Be Criminalized - 1007 Words

Did you know that Applied Survey Research counted a total of 4,539 homeless people last year in Sonoma County alone? I can vouch for the authenticity and methods used in this survey because I assisted as a counter. I am passionate about the social issue of homelessness, mainly because I was part of this population a decade ago. Applied Survey Research defines homelessness in part as, â€Å"An individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The sad fact is that there are not enough resources to adequately shelter America’s most vulnerable citizens. Many cities have passed ordinances that have criminalized homelessness. These so called quality of life ordinances are meant to protect the society at large. Homeless people†¦show more content†¦The National Coalition for the Homeless comprised a list of â€Å"The Meanest Cities†. Sarasota, Florida is number one on the list. Florida state courts overturned two previous anti-lodgi ng laws, but the third one passed. The current ordinance directly targets homeless people as grounds for arrest include persons that have no other place to live. In addition to the possibility of being arrested for camping, the seizure of personal property is another issue. My personal property was usually stolen by another homeless person. If it wasn’t stolen, it was seized by police. The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty provides an example of property seizure by stating the case of Ashcraft vs. City of Covington No. 02-124-JGW. The 2003 case involves a police raid where five homeless people had their possessions seized while camping. The fourteenth amendment says in part that no person should be deprived of their property without due process. When the case was settled, the plaintiffs were each awarded $1,000 as compensation for their destroyed property. Other ordinances that really upset me are the ones that prohibit loitering. Loitering is defined as hanging around an area for no apparent reason. I was harassed several times for loitering while homeless. Being forced to move along adds to the exhaustion homeless people already deal with. The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty gives another example, this one pertains toShow MoreRelatedShould Homelessness Be Criminalized?1747 Words   |  7 PagesShould Homelessness Be Criminalized One of the most discussed topics around the world is homelessness. Each and everyday more and more people become homeless. People around the world have tried numerous times to resolve this dilemma. This situation is growing and it s starting to spiral out of control. One solution that s getting popular the more we let this situation grow is that criminalizing the homeless is good. People cannot criminalize the homeless. Homeless people should not be criminalizedRead MoreThe Homelessness Of The Homeless1745 Words   |  7 Pagesthe most discussed topics around the world is homelessness. Each and every day more and more people become homeless. People around the world have tried numerous times to resolve this dilemma. This situation is growing and it s starting to spiral out of control. One solution that is getting popular the more we let this situation grow is that criminalizing the homeless is ok. People cannot criminalize the homeless. Homeless people should not be criminalized bec ause they have nowhere to go, they haveRead MoreFunding For The Homeless Shelter861 Words   |  4 Pagespeople were homeless on a given night in the United States† (National Alliance to End Homelessness). People become homeless due to a numerous amount of reasons, but the problem comes down to the low number of affordable housing and â€Å"the limited scale of housing assistance programs† (National Alliance to End Homelessness). Coming from a small town in Northwest Iowa and never encountering a homeless person, the homelessness issue in Iowa City was brought to my attention upon arriving here to attend collegeRead MoreHomelessness : A National Crisis1279 Words   |  6 Pagescrisis Theres No place like home... unfortunately for many people living in the UK do not have a place they can call home. Every person facing homelessness has ended up there for different reasons, however the lack of help, support and sympathy they get from our government is shameful. Despite rough sleeping being the most visible sign of homelessness, figures based on people living in temporary accommodation with no idea of their future is far more shocking. Over the past seven years those livingRead MoreWeakness Of Homelessness1232 Words   |  5 Pagesprograms, give homeless the psychological help. Weaknesses. Unfortunately, homeless must want to not live on the streets and give up the additions to recreational and prescription drugs and alcohol. They tend not to because they feel ostracized, being criminalized and bused from one city to the next. Opportunities. There are many opportunities for assisting the homeless population. Increasing community awareness to there are not as privileged and no roof over their head and what they can do to aid. MakingRead MoreHomelessness And Poverty And Homelessness1699 Words   |  7 PagesCenter on Homelessness and Poverty 7) While a portion of today’s society turns a blind eye to the subject of the criminalization of homelessness, an even larger quantity of people are not aware of the situation that is happening in every major city of America. For those living an affluent lifestyle, it can be difficult to discuss the amount of poverty and homelessness that is constantly occurring. The definition and meaning behind the absence of home is also arduous to discuss. While homelessness is commonlyRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion714 Words   |  3 Pagestheir beliefs, which causes unavoidable debates. Roe v. Wade (1973) occurred at a time when women were fighting for their right to control what happens to their bodies. The sexual revolution and feminist movement was well underway. Most states criminalized abortion in some form but the origination of this landmark case took precedence in Texas . Specifically, in the state of Texas, where the state law determines all of the logistics concerning receiving and successfully having the procedure. InRead MoreConstitutional Issue Of Vagrancy Law1485 Words   |  6 Pageselements of a crime: the vagrancy is vaguely defined and can be easily abused to arrest suspicious people merely based their appearance, and it punishes people because of their status instead of their acts. Vagrancy law has been abolished, but whether should we continue it remains debated. In this paper, I would discuss the issue of vagrancy law the from views of vagrancy law supporters, and argue back as an opposer. I would also analysis with the following four aspect s: vagueness, recidivism, utilitarianismRead MoreAlternatively, There Are Those Arguments That Individuals1072 Words   |  5 Pagesone’s opinion, with a very powerful opinion, which is stated as a thesis as Marlys Mayfield writes, â€Å"The most shocking thing I learned from my research on the fate of the working poor in the recession was the extent to which poverty has indeed been criminalized in America.† (Mayfield, 2014, pg. 188). This thesis seems to suggest that she has drawn a conclusion that the individuals who are considered the working poor during the time of the recession have extend beyond that, to a level of poverty, whichRead MoreOur Nation of Homelessness1833 Words   |  8 Pagesof Homelessness Amanda Turley SOC 331 Social Justice Ethics Instructor: Emily Archer April 28,2014 Homelessness is something that is happening to many people all around the world. Now when it comes to the United States, homelessness is not a phenomenon, and contrary to popular belief, the problem did not arise in the past few decades with the closer of mental hospitals, the influx of Vietnam veterans, or even the deep cuts into federal housing assistance. Homelessness in America

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Essay about Marlowes Doctor Faustus - 1011 Words

Marlowes Doctor Faustus Marlowes representation of Doctor Faustus changes direction through the play. We follow the change in ambition and greed of a human being who seeks pleasure so much that he sells his soul to the devil for a number of years. Does the power that Faustus obtains corrupt him or is he merely dissatisfied with the power he has and is greedy for more. At the start of the play, Marlowe uses powerful language when referring to Faustus search for knowledge. O, What a world of profit and delight, of power, of honour, of omnipotence, is promisd to the studious artisan. This is what Faustus wishes to obtain, the forbidden knowledge that he feels he can achieve, however it seems strange that Faustus should†¦show more content†¦Faustus has a flaw in his impatience. He wants everything to immediately take place. Faustus deludes himself, thinking he has power over everything but it soon becomes evident that Faustus has not conjured these spirits himself. He fluctuates between resolution and redemption throughout the play. It begins to become clear that the lust for forbidden knowledge could possibly drive Faustus so insane and make him narrow minded that he will lose sight of the original plans he made and his intentions at the start of the play. Rather illusions, fruits of lunacy. Faustus is in search of immediate gratification. H is impatience is not a good mix with his hunger for great power. Faustus is determined to achieve great things but he seems to lose sight of his original plans the further we delve into the play. The most impressive thing he seems to achieve is his provocation of the pope. The way that Faustus is acting is childish and unsophisticated. His behaviour can be compared to that of the clowns who, in their dismissal of the seriousness of conjuring the devils, highlight the change in Faustus plans, from grandeur and high aspirations to pettiness and childishness. The closer Faustus gets to the end of his contract with the devil, the closer he is to damnation and the more childish his behaviour becomes. Faustus is using his power for trivial matters. Shall make poor Faustus toShow MoreRelatedThe Supernatural in Marlowes Doctor Faustus2294 Words   |  10 Pagesby the Church and mans desire to explore the world and discover the truth on his own. The individual was now facing a dilemma: how to live up to the new mindset without completely dismissing old divine concepts. This dichotomy is clearly seen in Marlowes play _Doctor Faustus_, where the protagonist resorts to the supernatural in order to achieve power and knowledge but at the expense of continuous distress by his contradictory feelings of fascination and fear. This paper aims to prove that Marlowes_DoctorRead MoreEssay on Marlowes Doctor Faustus885 Words   |  4 PagesMarlowes Doctor Faustus In Faustus first speech in Act 1, my main feeling towards Faustus was not sympathy but irritation. I became aware of Faustus arrogance and his impatience with ordinary learning, particularly with his referral to law as a petty case of paltry legacies. He also constantly refers to himself as Faustus, reminding himself of his own importance. Other aspects of Faustus character are revealed in the descriptive language he uses. He is ravishd by magic, and isRead More Rafe and Robin in Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus Essay1239 Words   |  5 PagesRafe and Robin in Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus Rafe and Robin waltz into Christopher Marlowe’s The Tragical History of D. Faustus in scene four and vanish three scenes later. Although they may appear trivial and even intrusive, Rafe and Robin bring much-needed comic relief to this tragic play. Imitating Doctor Faustus’ actions unwittingly, this pair of ostlers illuminates Faustus’ misuse of power. They also reflect Faustus’ character by acting as his parallel self. Behind their clownishRead MoreEssay about Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus713 Words   |  3 Pages Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus is a psychological study of inner struggle. One of the most prominent themes in Doctor Faustus is the conflict between good and evil within the human soul. Marlowe’s play set the precedent for religious works concerned with morals and suffering. The play is centered on the title character, Doctor Faustus who is painted by Marlowe as an ambivalent character who is easily led down a path of agnostic tendencies. Doctor Faustus is a divided figuredRead More A Comparison of Everyman and Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus1145 Words   |  5 PagesA Comparison of Everyman and Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus Everyman and Doctor Faustus are both Morality Plays, these are specifically plays that existed within the Medieval period. They were popular during this period as they were intended to instruct the audience in the Christian way and attitudes to life. The morality play is essentially an allegory written in dramatic form. In the fourteenth Century, morality plays were mainly based on the seven deadly sins as in everyman withRead More Dr. Faustus Consumed by Pride in Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus1418 Words   |  6 PagesDr. Faustus Consumed by Pride in Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus In this theoretic play, Christopher Marlowe presents a man that is well educated, but is in search of more than what education can give to him. Dr. Faustus is a man possessed by himself, blown up in pride, and blinded by his own intellect. This blind, self- centered man challenges the ideals of death and the Devil. The first scene opens with Dr. Faustus in his study, he is seated, and then he begins to speak in depth of whatRead MoreEssay about The Deeper Meaning of Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus1168 Words   |  5 PagesThe Deeper Meaning of Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus  Ã‚   I do not agree with the frequently repeated comment that Doctor Faustus is an anti-intellectualist play that preaches that curiosity is dangerous. It is all too easy to see Faustus as the scholar, seeking knowledge, and his desire for knowledge that leads to his downfall. To confine the play to something so narrow is to ignore the deeper meaning behind the play. I believe that this deeper meaning is more important than the superficialRead MoreComparison Between Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus and William Shakespeares Twelfth Night872 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus versus William Shakespeares Twelfth Night Both Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus and William Shakespeares Twelfth Night deploy many of the same characteristic rhetorical features of 16th century verse dramas. Both plays are characterized by highly elaborate language, usually in iambic pentameter, although different types of verse structures are occasionally used to convey different moods or character types. Both plays combine tragedy and comedy within theRead More Dr. Faustus Essay - Pride, Insolence and the Fall of Doctor Faustus1949 Words   |  8 PagesPride, Insolence and the Fall of Doctor Faustus  Ã‚   As a highly revered individual - a doctor of theology who is also involved in liberal arts, medicine and law - Doctor Faustus possesses limitless knowledge. Nonetheless, unfortunately the more people know the more curious, thirsty and greedy for knowledge they become. Thus, wanting to know more and therefore, gain supernatural power, Faustus creates his own fall through pride, insolence and child-like behavior - the by-products of the dominatingRead More Dr. Faustus Essay: Faustus Changing Relationship with the Audience1521 Words   |  7 PagesDoctor Faustus Changing Relationship with the Audience Any good drama will have interesting and multi-faceted characters; some go a step further by developing some of those characters throughout the story, using the events of the plot to change them in various ways. The audience (in the case of a play) follows the characters throughout, watching as they move away from their originally crafted personalities and become something different. Naturally, during this period, the audiences opinion

Monday, December 23, 2019

Issues of Social Class in Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë Essay

He walks into the corporation building, and is greeted by a few of his colleagues, also heading to their cubicle. The man groans at his workload then glances around, seeing his supervisor frowning at him. â€Å"Oh boy, this isn’t good.† He thinks to himself as the supervisor walks into his boss’ office for the third time this week. His boss walks out a couple minutes later, and heads straight to the man’s cubicle. â€Å"Kevin, this is the third time in just this week that you haven’t been following the company’s procedures. Why won’t you just accept your job and do it like everyone else? I once had your job, and look at me! I’m now one of the head honchos of this place. So please stop disobeying, and you might get somewhere, and not fired.†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦Upon meeting Mrs. Fairfax, Jane couldn’t believe that she would be talking to her as an equal. â€Å"‘She treats me like a visitor, ’ thought I. ‘I little expected such a reception; I anticipated only coldness and stiffness: this is not like what I have heard of the treatment of governesses: but I must not exult too soon.’† (pg. 97-98) Jane later learns that the master of Thornfield is a Mr. Rochester. Throughout her entire stay, she tries to repress the feelings for Rochester, reminding herself that he is a nobleman and she is a servant. While at Moor House and at Morton, Jane finds herself among people of relatively the same social class as her, not to mention that they are her cousins on her father’s side. While in Morton, she is proposed to by her cousin, but not for good reasons. â€Å"’St. John!’ I exclaimed when I had got so far in my meditation. ‘Well?’ he answered, icily. ‘I repeat: I freely consent to go with you as your fellow-missionary; but not as your wife; I cannot marry you and become a part of you.’† (pg. 415 ) Jane earns a great fortune and shares it with her cousins, but leaves in search of her love. Jane also experiences a different type of social class, when she goes back to Rochester. She is now considered of wealth, and she marries Rochester. Upon marrying him, she has become his equal, in normal status, and in the fact that he is blind. Jane Eyre has dealt with social problems during her childhood, her first employment, her time atShow MoreRelatedJane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte1374 Words   |  6 PagesJane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte Within the specter of the Gothic fictions arises the atmosphere of gloom, terror, and mystery with some elements of uncanny challenging reality. One major characteristic function of the Gothic fictions is to open the fiction to the realm of the irrational and perverse narratives, obsessions, and nightmarish terrors that hide beneath the literally civilized mindset in order to demonstrate the presence of the uncanny existing in the world known rationally through experienceRead MoreJane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte1437 Words   |  6 Pagesthe concepts of social classes, religion, and reason v. passion. These timeless issues are shown all throughout history in novels, poems, songs, and other tools that depict history. One great work of art that portrays these constant struggles is Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontà «. While addressing social issues of a governess, Brontà « also tackles Victorian society’s corrupt and unjust ideals by using different settings and characters such as Mr. Rochester and Gateshead Manor. In Jane Eyre, the depictionRead More A Plea for Help in Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre1563 Words   |  7 Pagesin the novel Jane Eyre. Written in the mid-nineteenth century by Charlotte Brontà «, this book describes a young girl whose personality bears striking similarities with that of a diagnosed anorexic. The life of the main character, Jane, has also been shown to share innumerable similarities with Brontà «s own life. Biographical information from researchers and autobiographical information from Jane Eyre (whether intentional or not) verify that Brontà « had an eating disorder. Brontà « was raised inRead MoreCharlotte Bronte: The Social Critic1732 Words   |  7 Pagesrest of the world. Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre had a similar effect upon the mindset of Victorian society, as its publication ended the silence on social justice and set off an ‘eruption’, leading to sweeping reforms. The novel revolves around the moral and spiritual journey of Jane Eyre, an orphan who values freedom and struggles to break free of Victorian-era standards. Brontà « satirizes these standards through her portrayal of the lower classes, mental illness, and orphans. Jane is critical of VictorianRead MoreWomen s Rights During The Victorian Age1486 Words   |  6 Pageswoman’s strength lied in her ability to be somewhat of a moral compass for men. Sarah Stickney Ellis discussed this in her work The Women of England. Their Social Duties and Domestic Habits. In the ideal Victorian household, the man would support the family financially, and the woman would handle all of the domestic duties. Any family middle class and under had to have extra financial support, thereby needing women to work outside of the home, and they were looked down upon for it. During this timeRead MoreSocial Classes In Pride And Prejudice And Jane Eyre1605 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: In both texts; Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte explore social class in a number of ways. They do this through the use of their stylistic devices and this in turn appeals to their different audiences. Both Jane and Charlotte are notable writers for their remarkable texts. Jane Austen is known for playing a revolutionary role in the generation of English female literature, which was counteracted by this piece- and Charlotte Bronte further developed her feminist thoughts, which haveRead MoreThe Idea Of Governess Extended Until The Nineteenth Century807 Words   |  4 Pagesgoverness extended until the nineteenth century. The Victorian women, especially the Bronte sisters, Charlotte and Anne, experienced the occupation of a governess. Their impressions were negative because of the poor condition, bad treatment, and low wage of a governess during the Victorian era. According to Gilbert, Anne endured in the governess’s job for six years while Charlotte shortened it to two years. C harlotte wrote in a letter to her sister Emily, â€Å"I can now see more clearly than I have everRead More Suffering and Injustice in the Opening Chapters of Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre3724 Words   |  15 PagesChapters of Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre At the time the novel Jane Eyre was written, it was very difficult for women writers to have their books published. Charlotte Brontà « was very aware of the problem, and cleverly changed her name to Currer Bell so the book would be accepted. Luckily for Charlotte, her novel Jane Eyre was published in October 1847, and since writing this novel, Charlotte Brontà « has become very popular, and a classic author. The Victorian era was a time of great social divisionRead MoreJane Eyre Class Analysis1624 Words   |  7 Pages Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte shows the hierarchical class system prevalent in England in the 19th century. Through the character of Jane, Bronte explores the system and reveals many issues with society in the 19th century. For instance, the novel raises the issue of whether a governess should be considered upper class due to her superior education or lower class due to her servant-like status in the family. Jane’s journey through the established class structure results in her making judgmentsRead MoreJane Austen And Charlotte Bronte s Social Class1748 Words   |  7 PagesIn both texts, both authors; Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte explore social class in a number of ways. They do this through the use of their stylistic devices and this in turn appeals to their different audiences. Both Jane and Charlotte are notable writers for their remarkable texts. Jane Aus ten is known for playing a revolutionary role in the generation of English female literature, which was counteracted by this piece- and Charlotte Bronte further developed her feminist thoughts, which have been

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Personal Responsibility Essay Free Essays

Students are Responsible for Their Own Educational Future John Doe Eng/215 01/01/01 Jane Doe Students are Responsible for Their Own Educational Future A student is personally responsible for the integrity, dedication, and attitude committed to furthering their education. Personal responsibility is defined as taking responsibility for one’s actions and accepting the consequences of those actions. In the area of education, it means students are the ones that will be held accountable for their schoolwork. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Responsibility Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Blaming circumstance or other people for failure to obtain a degree will not change the fact they did not live up to the standards agreed upon before enrollment. Personal responsibility is about the integrity to make the choice to do our own work. Therefore, shortcuts that cheat us and take away from the learning experience should be avoided. The reward of hard work and an honest effort is a better understanding and greater appreciation for the subject. Schools should work to create a culture of academic honesty. Professors, staff, and students must understand that integrity and honesty are valued qualities to be nurtured and maintained. Those who truly value learning, never even consider cheating. That is academic integrity (ASCCC, 2007). A student must have the courage to own both the good that is accomplished and the mistakes made along the way. The mark of a mature student is to learn from these mistakes and continue to improve. A positive attitude displayed towards constructive criticism is essential in order to achieve the necessary improvements. Personal responsibility is a virtue that should apply to a student’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. Ultimately, with sufficient resources available, the time and effort a student contributes will determine their amount of success. Members of the School of Education and Human Development at George Washington University wrote Recent scholarship has emphasized the importance of student effort and involvement in their academic and co-curricular activities as the decisive elements in promoting positive college outcomes. As colleges have struggled to extend opportunities, an accompanying expectation for students to assume esponsibility for their own education often has been lacking. Institutions must work to create a climate in which all students feel welcome and able to fully participate. It is equally important to nurture an ethic that demands student commitment and promotes student responsibility. Students can contribute to their own learning and to the development of a campus climate in which all can grow and learn (Davis Murrell, 1993). Some classes will be more stimulating to a student than others. Often there are required courses in a subject of less personal interest. The responsible student will display the same attitude and dedication to these classes as in the ones enjoyed the most. For example, subjects such as math may not seem as relevant to an English degree as 20th century English literature, but they should receive the same level of commitment. A student must set aside both resources and time to complete assignments. For example: An on-line student can have the best computer with all the right software and it won’t do a bit of good if they begin working on their thesis two hours before the due date. At the same time, a student can have a week to dedicate to writing their thesis and it won’t do them any good if they cannot get to a computer to submit it to the Professor. Before students begin a course they should ensure they have both the time and resources necessary to succeed. When assignments are too difficult, or grades are lower than expected, some students look for others to blame. To quote from California State University, Chico’s recent guidelines for new students â€Å"DO NOT BLAME OTHERS FOR YOUR ACADEMIC PROBLEMS. A large number of students blame others for their failure. This is a cop-out for ineptitude† (CSUC, 2011-2012). Students who have accepted personal responsibility will look into themselves to find the motivation to achieve their academic goals. For those who want to get the most from their university experience blaming the lack of time, work, family obligations, the instructor, or the university, is not an option. In order to practice personal responsibility in my education I will do my best to follow the five guidelines outlined by members of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Five Key Dimensions of Personal and Social Responsibility (Colby Sullivan 2009) 1. Strive for excellence: I must do my best at all times. If at the end of the day I can say I have done everything possible with what I have, I can accept the outcome with my head held high. 2. Cultivate personal and academic integrity: I will get what I put into my education. If I cheat and plagiarize from others it hurts me and my team members. In order to be truly proud at the end of this long hard process I have to be able to say I DID IT. I copied it doesn’t have the same ring to it. 3. Contribute to a larger community: Working within my team is important. Together we can achieve a better outcome than we could separately. Working with diverse people we can learn from and strengthen each other. 4. Take seriously the perspectives of others: We are all different and look at the world through our own experiences. Nobody has all the answers and everyone has strengths and weaknesses. The trick is to use our strengths to help others while accepting help to strengthen our weaknesses. 5. Develop competence in ethical and moral reasoning: I need to gain confidence in my ability to think things through using all available information. I must hold myself to the highest moral and ethical standards both in the academic world and life in general. In conclusion, although some may blame others for their failure to obtain a degree, students that truly want to learn must take personal responsibility for their education. The amount of effort they devote to the education process has a direct correlation to the success achieved. Committing the resources and time necessary to achieve your educational goals will pay off in the end. References California State University, Chico. (2011-2012). How to Succeed in College. Retrieved from http://www. csuchico. edu/aap/top-nav/transfers/succeed_college. shtml Colby, A. , Sullivan, W. (2009). Strengthening the Foundations of Students’ Excellence, Integrity, and Social Contribution. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=a83f0f2d-f775-4da9-85e2-b9fa7d9e3dc8%40sessionmgr14vid=6;hid=5 Davis, T. , ; Murrell, P. (1993). Turning Teaching Into Learning: The Role of Student Responsibility in the Collegiate Experience. Retrieved from http://ntlf. com/html/lib/93-8dig. htm The Academic Senate For California Community Colleges. (Spring 2007). Promoting And Sustaining An Institutional Climate Of Academic Integrity. Retrieved from http://www. eric. ed. gov. PDFS/ED510583. pdf How to cite Personal Responsibility Essay, Essays Personal Responsibility Essay Free Essays Personal Responsibility Julie Torbert Gen 200 August 13, 2012 Ben McCollum Personal Responsibility Personal responsibility includes taking accountability for one’s actions, responsibilities, and goals that will improve performance and relationships in one’s life. Personal responsibility means that one is responsible for his or her actions and any consequences they may cause. People are solely responsible for their attitude; how they feel and think about things will determine if they will be successful in life. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Responsibility Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Persons are also accountable for their goals in life, first they need to set goals and determine what steps they will need to take to accomplish the goals they have in life. One should set short-term goals to help build up to long-term goals; doing this will allow you to feel accomplished each time a short-term goal is reached and will keep you motivated. A person can write down their short-term goals that lead up to their long-term goals so that every time that person checks off a short-term goal it will help them to feel a sense of accomplishment. Another way to build a person’s identity is to broaden experiences, knowledge, and insight. Doing this helps a person gain social and moral character which develops social and personal accountability (Braskamp Chickering, 2009). Personal responsibility will help oneself to achieve college success. As they hold their self accountable for their success, they will gain control over their lives, which will in turn, build their self-esteem. People who develop a sense of purpose will commit to being personally and socially responsible. Developing purpose is a way to think broadly and to view one’s life in a manner that encompasses career plans and aspirations as well as personal interests and interpersonal and family commitments and responsibilities† (Braskamp Chickering, 2009, p. 28). A person should learn what their weaknesses are and work on turning them into their strengths; this will help them to become a better person and student. Experience is one of the best w ays to learn, so surrounding oneself with virtuous leaders will help to define and strengthen one’s character (Osiemo, 2012). Improving one’s weaknesses will help to increase their performance, leaving them with more time for other things. Holding one personally responsible for their actions will help them stop procrastinating and get their work done in a systematic manner. A person will need to learn to manage their time to accomplish getting their work done without feeling stressed and overwhelmed. Managing one’s time includes work, school, health, and also finding the extra time to do things they enjoy. A calendar is a good way to keep a person on track by organizing a daily and weekly schedule. A smartphone is another good way to keep track of appointments or deadlines by setting alerts up on the calendar in the telephone. Having an organized schedule helps a person feel a sense of direction and relief from stress. When a student is in a time crunch they should delegate tasks to others if possible. Doing this with one’s children can relieve stress off of the student while also teaching their children responsibility. Learning to manage time will help adults with their relationships they have with their loved ones and also set an example for others to follow. The more one holds themselves accountable, the more respect they will earn from others. People are not born destined to become leaders; they must obtain values, morals, and ethics and live by them. (Osiemo, 2012) Managing emotions are a huge part of developing one’s personal and social responsibility. When a person learns their temperament and how to focus their emotions into positive results they have attained a huge goal that will lead to their success. Anger is an emotion most people deal with at an early age but often have problems controlling. To gain control over one’s emotions a person must first recognize the emotion they are feeling. Then a person can learn effective ways to deal with the emotion that they are feeling. Some effective ways of dealing with one’s emotions are to write down their feelings or talk to others about them. Other people use activities such as sports to channel their emotions; furthermore others find doing physical work helps while also producing positive results. The ability to manage emotions becomes critical to effectively tackle social problems as we bring diverse backgrounds and perspectives to a variety of hot topics† (Braskamp Chickering, 2009, p. 28). My plan for personal responsibility is first to manage my time better. I have found that if I take my lunch to work with me that I can use my hour lunch break for reading and studying. This way, I gain five hours of study time a week that does not take from the time I have with my family. I have written down my short-term and long-term goals and am currently planning on checking my first short term goal off of my list which is finishing this class. I use my calendar at work to schedule my work assignments as well as my school assignments. I use my smart phone calendar to remind me of personal appointments and my children’s activities. I have a plan to incorporate my workout time in the evenings with my family at a local track where we can walk and run while we catch up on the day’s events. This likewise helps to relieve my stress and elevate my mood. I have also set aside study time on the weekend mornings while my family is asleep. This allows me to spend most of my evening and weekend nights free for family time and to socialize. Another way I have learned to use my time in an efficient manner was to buy a headset that way on my hour and a half commute to work I can talk to my children. In conclusion, personal responsibility includes managing ones actions, goals, time and emotions. Learning to do this is not easy but well worth it, one will gain a sense of self accomplishment, as well as respect from others. A person must learn values and ethics as well as how to manage their time and responsibility if they want to become a leader in society. Eleanor Roosevelt once said â€Å"In the long run, we shape our lives, and we shape ourselves. The process never ends until we die. And the choices we make are ultimately our own responsibility† (Goodreads Inc. , 2012). Bibliography Braskamp, L. A. , Chickering, A. (2009). Developing a Global Perspective for Personal and Social Responsibility. Peer Review, 11(4), 27-30. Goodreads Inc. (2012). goodreads. com. Retrieved August 24, 2012, from Goodreads: How to cite Personal Responsibility Essay, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Political Correctness in Richard Scarrys Book free essay sample

The Appearance of Political Correctness in Children’s Literature: With special regards to Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever Political correctness is one of the most controversial cultural and academic issues of today. Although because of its interdisciplinary nature it can be studied in relation to American English. In this paper the main focus is on the new interdisciplinary studies emerging in the scope of academics, such as multicultural literature; narrowing down to children’s multicultural literature. The purpose of this essay is to study the development of political correctness in children’s literature and also to try to explore whether it is a clear cut appearance of the phenomenon, or it is whether a continuing formation of the term. The basic element of this study is Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever (1963, 1991), the differences between the â€Å"old† and the somewhat â€Å"newer† version. The scope of the exploration ranges across an assortment of topics. For example: how gender roles are illustrated in the 1960’s and in the 1990’s, also there is an explanation on how religious and ethnic groups are presented in the books. Moreover there is an attempt to compare and contrast different pieces of children’s literature of our time, as well as to have a look at a children’s book published in Great Britain. I do not offer a comprehensive study of political or cultural correctness presented in children’s literature, my aim is more to explore this particular children’s dictionary focusing on several themes. In this paper I would not like to explore the chosen books on a particular study or given viewpoint. I have tried to base the study on personal data research and my own reflection on the book. Nevertheless I find it important to bring up various terms and critics according to the topic of political correctness. First of all, I would like to explain what does political correctness (PC) generally means and its importance in the context of education and children’s literature. â€Å"The central uses of the term relate to particular issues of race, gender, disability, ethnicity, sexual preference, culture and worldviews, and encompass both the language in which issues are discussed and the viewpoints that are expressed. †[1] Examples can be African-American instead of Black or Negro; Native-American in place of Indian. Also gender-neutral terms like police officer instead of policeman, or flight-attendant in place of steward/stewardess. The term political correctness is originated from the turn of the century; it was originally associated with Marxism and Marxist theory. There are critics who claim political correctness as totalitarian, also a limitation on free speech,[2] commonly known as â€Å"speech codes†[3]. There are several interpretations of the term in general. Nowadays to be politically correct is rather a pejorative phrase. As Richard Bernstein in 1990 stated in the New York Times: The term politically correct, with its suggestion of Stalinist orthodoxy is spoken more with irony and disapproval than with reverence. But across the country the term PC, as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities. [4] We can see at this point, that his reference on political correctness has already reached the question of education and the influence on children, proving that it has become a significant issue from the 1980-90’s. Although ever since children’s literature came to existence, there have been debates over the â€Å"moral correctness† of books[5]. In the 1981 December issue of English Journal an article points out the important features that should be considered when editing books for educational use, targeting children. The title is â€Å"Proactive censorship: The new wave†: Today when writing a book for use in public schools, an author must be aware of: 1. How many black faces appear in proportion to the number of white faces; 2. The use of names such as Carlos and Juanita in proportion to those of Billy and Sue; 3. The use of pronouns that negate sex bias; 4. Putting anyone in a stereotypical role . Paying obeisance to mandates of the consumer enlightenment moguls; 6. Excluding materials that imply the rape of our natural beauty; 7. Any vaguely humorous, satiric, and/or critical treatment of anyone’s religious preference; 8. Any allusion to stereotypes of ethnic and national origins; 9. Statements that may contain political bias; 10. Reference to drugs, tobacco, alcohol, non-nutritious foods, etc. [6] This extract from the English Journal could give an excellent basis for studying in what extent a book is politically correct. Reading through different children’s picture books, I came to the conclusion that in Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever can we find the best examples of in what level PC or cultural correctness affected the different editions. However I would also like to give counter examples, for instance a British children’s picture dictionary, as well as to explore cases when political correctness is – in my point of view – exaggerated. To begin with, I would like to give an outline of what kind of categories were established during the research. When someone turns over the pages of Best Word Book Ever for a few times, firstly what they might recognize are the different images that may occurred in the new edition, or have been replaced by something else, or finally – have been deleted from the new edition. This might catch the attention, why are these changes have taken place? Is it only a revision, a change in style, to be more up to date? Or is it more a conscious changing of images to be shown to children at early ages. I am going to illustrate these phenomena with pictures as well. Furthermore I would also like to make more categories based on text and the words used in the dictionary, but firstly the focus is on visual representation. Different changes in the images can be categorized as well. Based on the personal exploration, I have come to list the following categories: 1. Gender roles (family roles, occupational stereotypes) 2. Representation of different ethnic groups 3. Religious references 4. Political reference To start with gender roles I would like to explain a little more what results the research come up with. Firstly, the typical gender roles in the 1963 edition were the â€Å"old†, conservative stereotyping of sexes. Probably the most striking example for this can be found in the kitchen of the â€Å"rabbit house†. In the 1963 edition it is only mother rabbit that is standing at the stove in the kitchen, stating the stereotypical role of a woman, to do the housework. However, in the 1991 edition the image had been revised. It is not only the household equipment that has been renewed, but father rabbit appears with mother rabbit in the kitchen as well. Moreover he is there to help in preparing for breakfast, so now the male member of the family is allowed to do housework as well. Not to mention the fruit juice he is making, which can be a reference on healthy lifestyle – an important teaching method as well. Also on the cover page there is another reference on gender roles. Again, rabbit family is working on the field. First of all, in the earlier edition it is only the male rabbit that is doing physical work. On the other hand, in the new edition the previous scarecrow has been replaced with the female rabbit, suggesting the possibility of a woman doing hard, physical work. There are two more implications of the changing roles of sexes on the cover page. The first is the â€Å"cat family† walking the stroller. It is obviously the mother who is pulling the stroller in the 1963 edition; however the edition from the 1991’s shows the family without the mother, giving the father figure a somewhat new role. Last but not least, we have mention the police officer (policeman in the 1963 edition), who has been replaced by a female character. It is again a reference to stereotypical gender roles and their new, politically correct versions. To continue with gender roles, another significant difference can be observed when we are reading through the book. At the â€Å"When you grow up† section there are several jobs illustrated with colorful pictures. However we can see that some of them are changed. Firstly the cowboy character from the previous edition has been replaced, as well as the milkman rabbit. The cowboy image is probably no longer accepted to that extent because of the decreasing interest in the Westward Movement (Native American references has been almost entirely replaced); or the sometimes pejorative interpretation of the term cowboy. Therefore the possibly aggressive and violent[7] cowboy character has been replaced by a scientist and a gardener. These two professions are a lot more peaceful ones and also we can see that scientist character is a female bear, however the gardener is illustrated as a male cat. This is once more a great reference on gender neutralization of jobs. Likewise there is one more image that has been changed, and that is of the milkman. Since it is no longer a widespread profession, in the 1991 edition of the book instead of the milkman children can read about a taxi driver. It is probably suggesting the urbanization of the US and the world. We can observe similar transformations from â€Å"old† professions to fashionable ones on other pages as well. In the 1963 version of Scarry’s book, we can see a â€Å"commuter† and a â€Å"train conductor†. However, in the new edition these two characters are completely removed. Replaced by a photographer and a reporter, now we have two stylish professions enjoying a growing interest among people. Not to mention the yet again noticeable change of stereotypically sexist professions. The changing image of the teacher from one edition to the other shows again the growing tendency of gender neutralizing the professions. The next section that is worth exploring is the part on playing games. Two vivid pages can be seen here, full of children having fun on the playground. However if we have a closer look at the two editions we can observe five revolutionary changes between them. Firstly, some of the characters have changed their sexes. The cats, playing ring-around-a-rosy are predominantly female characters. However, in the later edition we can see that one of them has been transformed into a male character. The same phenomenon can be seen on pigs, playing marbles; one of them is now a girl, indicating the possibility for a girl to play games that are originally mostly for boys. Same happens with the girl cat playing bouncing ball – it is no longer a female character. Also the characters playing tag have faced the same transformation. In the politically correct version it is no longer the boy chasing the girl, but at this time women have the same opportunity to â€Å"chase† men – that is a good reference on the changing attitude of women towards men. Last but not least, one more image in relation to gender-roles. The pictures below give us another good example on changing gender roles. With adding a ribbon on both pictures, the characters’ sexes now are changed; being more politically correct again. To continue with the different categories of changes in the two edition, let us know have a look at the representation of different ethnic groups. There are not as many examples on this category as we could find on gender roles, though if we look at the book closely we can find some exciting illustrations to mention. To begin with the cover page again, the first to notice is that there are no real good examples we can mention. However, when we have a second closer look, we can see a possible illustration of being not politically correct in the 1963 version. On the first side of the picture we can see the earlier edition, on which the policeman stops the driver. However we can observe the changing skin color of the driver. On the first picture it is much darker than on the other, indicating the possibility of being a member of an ethnic minority. Although these are just assumptions, on a personal point-of-view, it is worth mentioning. As I have already referred on the disappearance of Native American references, let us now have a look at on it. There are different cases through the book where we can find the Native American characters are missing. At the alphabet section, at letter â€Å"I†, the Indian mouse holding the ice cream is simply deleted from the 1991 edition. As well as at the part about â€Å"Boats and ships† the canoe is transformed into a more â€Å"neutral† element, replacing the possible references on Native Americans from the 1963 version. Also interesting to mention that in the 1963 edition there is a â€Å"wild west† section, however it is not existent in the 1991 anymore. Finally, there is also a significant change in relation to religion and politics. However there are only a few examples for these two categories altogether, it is important to mention them. At the section on holidays, we can find reference on Halloween, the Santa Claus, and a Christmas tree as well. Although in the 1991 edition a menorah is added as a reference on Chanukah. Being more politically correct? Then the question is obvious, why Kwanza is missing? There is a possibility of adding it soon too. As for political references, there is a really good example worth noticing. We can find it at the professions section. In 1963 one of the most prominent jobs that are mentioned is a soldier. However, it is no longer politically correct to refer on war on any possible violent action. Therefore the image of the soldier in 1991 is replaced by a judge – the typical image of a democratic society. As I have already mentioned, after the visual examples, I would like to have a quick look at the linguistic differences as well. For this I would like to make a list of the words and expressions that have been changed over the years. Firstly, the gender-neutralization is important to notice. Changes have occurred in words like: mailman to letter carrier policeman to police officer fireman to firefighter â€Å"beautiful screaming lady† to â€Å"cat in danger† â€Å"jumping gentlemen† was deleted â€Å"brave hero† to fire fighter â€Å"mother† in lower case to â€Å"Mother† in capital letter â€Å"handsome pilot† to pilot â€Å"pretty stewardess† to flight attendant baggage man to baggage handler And one more really good example is when talking about the male member of the family at the â€Å"Bear family†. In the 1963 edition: â€Å"He comes promptly when he is called to breakfast†. However in the newer version: â€Å"He goes to the kitchen to eat his breakfast†. It is no longer an essential job for woman to prepare breakfast, but more individually the male member of the family takes his part in housework. Nevertheless I would like to comment on the 1990 version of Best First Book Ever from the same author. While doing the research, I have read through this somewhat same edition of this series and I have found that it is not that essential to change everything into a politically correct form in all children’s book. In Best First Book Ever (1990) I have found that there was no gender neutralization of the professions, fireman remains fireman, â€Å"seven postmen† and fishermen are also mentioned. Moreover if looking through the book with special regards on exaggerated politically correct terms, we will find none. Images are titled such as â€Å"Miss Hones is big†, â€Å"Mr. Frumble is fat†, and â€Å"Big Hilda is huge†. However there are satirical references on politically correct terms that might occur in these contexts as well. [8] Last but not least, a few words about two British publications. One of them is Things People Do (1997) and the other one is 1000 Words and Pictures (1993). The previous is an Usborne publication, the latter Ladybird Books Ltd – both are British. It is interesting in the two books that both have been published in the 1990’s, though both kept the â€Å"politically incorrect† usage of professions. â€Å"Postman†, â€Å"policeman†, â€Å"fireman†, â€Å"fisherman† all remained and all of them are illustrated as male characters. To conclude, no doubt about the significance of these phenomena, since they affect the youngest generation. It is also interesting who makes these decisions about the changes? Is it really that important to teach children at the age of 3-4 about the politically correct terminology? This essay surely does not answer these questions. However it tried to illustrate the existent ongoing transformation of different terms and expressions in American children’s literature.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Andal-Goda And Mirabai Essays - Bhakti Movement, Alvars, Andal

Andal-Goda And Mirabai Poetry, Passion, and Power: The Lyrics of Andal-Goda and the Music of Goda Mandali, Vasudha Narayanan & Mirabai: Inscribed in Text, Embodied in Life, Nancy M. Martin-Kershaw This is a summary and reaction to the above articles, both of which have similar foci in that they each discuss different female Hindu saints. These Saints, though women, have life histories that do not exactly fit into the prescribed gender roles of current modern India. Interestingly, in an India where men dominate and female virtue is based on passivity and sacrifice for one's husband, these holy women, who never married (officially) and show no sign of passivity, are widely excepted and widely revered as examples of holy righteousness. Because of this, the saints can be viewed as alternative role models for women in India who do not readily want to submit themselves to the rule of men. The articles focus on this seemingly contradictory phenomenon of the incorporation of these female saints in Hindu mythology, first giving hagiographic details pertaining to the saints and then siting examples of various followers attracted to them. In the first article, Narayanan shows how the only female alvar of Tamil hymns, the Saint Goda (pupularly known as Andal), can be seen as an alternative female role model-one that showed contempt for marrying a man. Andal, or she who rules, is an eighth century poet saint who is worshiped in south India by adherents of the Srivaisnava faith. We see, however, that although Andal is and has been worshipped throughout south India in temples for centuries, her poetry and contribution to religious worship have largely been ignored in Hindu scholarship. Narayanan's article really drives the point home that, although many scholars have ignored Goda, the reality of Andal in the Shrivaisnava faith is very strong, which makes the fact that she has been ignored all the more peculiar. It certainly is not because Andal lacks sufficient hagiography. Narayanan mentions three different hagiographical traditions describing Andal's discovery by her father in the garden and her later refusal to marry, preferring to marry Visnu instead. For Andal, however, this is no mere fantasy and when she is brought to Srirangam upon Visnu's request, she is unified with the Lord both physically and spiritually, thus marrying Him. Apart from biographical stories, Andal is also survived by her two Tamil poems, which are recited daily in Srivaisnava temples. Also, inline with the recent emergence of women bhajana groups that sing the poems of the Tamil saints, several such groups have developed that are devoted specifically to the praise and worship of Andal-Goda through the singing of her poetry. It is interesting to note as well that these mainly female Bhajana organizations attract members from outside of the Srivaisnava community, as only about 10% of their membership come from this group. Narayanan mentions two different groups devoted to Andal. They have women members, meet twice a week, and frequently give performances also appearing on television, radio. It seems that these groups gathering in praise of Andal are drawn in perhaps not only by religious piety, but also out of the attraction that such a powerful female role model provides. Certainly the model of Andal inspires a hope of a different sort of role for women that traditional Indian society does not provide. The second Article by Martin-Kershaw focuses on another female saint, Mirabai. She is described to be the embodiment of absolute devotion to Krsna. Mirabai lived in the 16th century and was a member of the Rathor royal family. She seems to have been a true rebel and is seen as a defiant lover of God who ignored all social expectations for a royal woman in order to daily live out her limitless devotion for God. Martin-Kershaw next goes on to give us hagiographic details pertaining to Mira's life. It is said that she was forced to marry a Rana, but immediately she gets into trouble with this new family because she refuses to bow down to the family's Goddess. She refused because her only God was Krsna. Angered, the in-laws said that she was useless and ignorant and she was next made to be isolated in a separate palace. The in-laws later tried